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family. Also, learn how to assess your landscaping
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|The Greeks and the
Romans were among the first who undertook landscape
architecture on an extensive scale. Vitrifies wrote
on many topics (e.g. the layout of towns) many of
which still concern landscape architects today. |
As with many other arts, it was not until during the
Renaissance that garden design was revived, with
some outstanding examples that include places such
as the pleasure grounds at the Villa d'Este, Tivoli.
The renaissance garden developed throughout the 16th
and 17th centuries, reaching it's ultimate grandeur
in the work of André le Nôtre whic can be seen at
Vaux-le-Vicomte and Versailles.
Around the 18th Century, England became the focus of
a new style of landscape design. Such figures as
William Kent, Humphrey Repton, and most famously
Lancelot Brown remodelled many of the great estate
parks of the English aristocracy to resemble a neat
and tidy ordered version of nature. Many of these
parks still remain today.
|The term 'landscape
architecture' was apparently first used by the
Scotsman Gilbert Laing Meason - in the title of his
book called The Landscape Architecture of the
Great Painters of Italy (London, 1828). It's
them centered on the type of architecture found in
landscape paintings. The term 'landscape
architecture' was then later taken up and used by JC
Loudon and AJ Downing.|
Through out the 19th
century, urban planning became more and more
important. The combination of modern planning with
the tradition of landscape gardening gave Landscape
Architecture its unique focus. During the second
half of the century, Frederick Law Olmsted completed
a series of parks which still continue today to have
a huge influence on the practices of Landscape
Architecture. Among these were places such as
Central Park in New York, Prospect Park in Brooklyn,
and also Boston's so called Emerald Necklace park
Landscape Architecture continues to develop as a
design discipline and art, and has responded to many
of the movements of art, design and architecture
through the 20th century. Today, healthy levels of
innovation continue to provide challenging design
solutions for streetscapes, parks and gardens
Your Landscaping Needs
Landscape gardening has
often been likened to the painting of a picture.
Your art-work teacher has doubtless told you that a
good picture should have a point of chief interest,
and the rest of the points simply go to make more
beautiful the central idea, or to form a fine
setting for it. So in landscape gardening there must
be in the gardener's mind a picture of what he
desires the whole to be when he completes his work.
From this study we shall be able to work out a
little theory of landscape gardening.
Let us go to the
lawn. A good extent of open lawn space is always
beautiful. It is restful. It adds a feeling of space
to even small grounds. So we might generalize and
say that it is well to keep open lawn spaces. If one
covers his lawn space with many trees, with little
flower beds here and there, the general effect is
choppy and fussy. It is a bit like an over-dressed
person. One's grounds lose all individuality thus
treated. A single tree or a small group is not a bad
arrangement on the lawn. Do not centre the tree or
trees. Let them drop a bit into the background. Make
a pleasing side feature of them. In choosing trees
one must keep in mind a number of things. You should
not choose an overpowering tree; the tree should be
one of good shape, with something interesting about
its bark, leaves, flowers or fruit. While the poplar
is a rapid grower, it sheds its leaves early and so
is left standing, bare and ugly, before the fall is
old. Mind you, there are places where a row or
double row of Lombardy poplars is very effective.
But I think you'll agree with me that one lone
poplar is not. The catalpa is quite lovely by
itself. Its leaves are broad, its flowers
attractive, the seed pods which cling to the tree
until away into the winter, add a bit of picture
squeezes. The bright berries of the ash, the
brilliant foliage of the sugar maple, the blossoms
of the tulip tree, the bark of the white birch, and
the leaves of the copper beech all these are beauty
points to consider.
Place makes a difference in the selection of a tree.
Suppose the lower portion of the grounds is a bit
low and moist, then the spot is ideal for a willow.
Don't group trees together which look awkward. A
long-looking poplar does not go with a nice rather
rounded little tulip tree. A juniper, so neat and
prim, would look silly beside a spreading chestnut.
One must keep proportion and suitability in mind.
As trees are chosen because of certain good points,
so shrubs should be. In a clump I should wish some
which bloomed early, some which bloomed late, some
for the beauty of their fall foliage, some for the
colour of their bark and others for the fruit. Some
spireas and the forsythia bloom early. The red bark
of the dogwood makes a bit of colour all winter, and
the red berries of the barberry cling to the shrub
well into the winter.
Certain shrubs are good to use for hedge
purposes. A hedge is rather prettier usually than a
fence. The Californian privet is excellent for this
purpose. Osage orange, Japan barberry, buckthorn,
Japan quince, and Van Houtte's spirea are other
shrubs which make good hedges.
I forgot to say that in tree and shrub selection it
is usually better to choose those of the locality
one lives in. Unusual and foreign plants do less
well, and often harmonize but poorly with their new
Landscape gardening may follow along very formal
lines or along informal lines. The first would have
straight paths, straight rows in stiff beds,
everything, as the name tells, perfectly formal. The
other method is, of course, the exact opposite.
There are danger points in each.
Garden paths may be of gravel, of dirt, or of grass.
One sees grass paths in some very lovely gardens. I
doubt, however, if they would serve as well in your
small gardens. Your garden areas are so limited that
they should be re-spaded each season, and the grass
paths are a great bother in this work. Of course, a
gravel path makes a fine appearance, but again you
may not have gravel at your command. It is possible
for any of you to dig out the path for two feet.
Then put in six inches of stone or clinker. Over
this, pack in the dirt, rounding it slightly toward
the centre of the path. There should never be
depressions through the central part of paths, since
these form convenient places for water to stand. The
under layer of stone makes a natural drainage
Flowers may well go along the side of the
building, or bordering a walk. In general, though,
keep the front lawn space open and unbroken by beds.
What lovelier in early spring than a bed of
daffodils close to the house? Hyacinths and tulips,
too, form a blaze of glory. These are little or no
bother, and start the spring aright. One may make of
some bulbs an exception to the rule of unbroken
front lawn. Snowdrops and crocuses planted through
the lawn are beautiful. They do not disturb the
general effect, but just blend with the whole. One
expert bulb gardener says to take a basketful of
bulbs in the fall, walk about your grounds, and just
drop bulbs out here and there. Wherever the bulbs
drop, plant them. Such small bulbs as those we plant
in lawns should be in groups of four to six.
Daffodils may be thus planted, too. You all remember
the grape hyacinths that grow all through
Katharine's side yard.
Finally, let us sum up our landscape lesson. The
grounds are a setting for the house or buildings.
Open, free lawn spaces, a tree or a proper group
well placed, flowers which do not clutter up the
front yard, groups of shrubbery these are points to
be remembered. The paths should lead somewhere, and
be either straight or well curved. If one starts
with a formal garden, one should not mix the
informal with it before the work is done.Some of the pics and text
over here has been taken from (mygarden.net.au)